INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES ON THE SELF-EFFICACY OF ORPHANED CHILDREN LIVING IN ORPHANAGES IN BUNGOMA COUNTY, KENYA
NASONGO, BENSON MURUMBA
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The primary focus of many orphanages in Kenya is the provision of shelter and food with little investment in mental health care provision. It presents significant implications for the self-efficacy of children brought up in orphanages, which could persist in their adulthood. Moreover, the orphanages offer general guidance and counselling programs, with little effort directed to counselling services offered for purposes of adjusting and coping with orphanhood. Research has not adequately established the link between counselling services provision and its relationship with orphans efficacy. This study was aimed to find out the influence of guidance and counselling services on the self-efficacy of orphans living in orphanages in Bungoma County. The objectives of the study were; to establish the influence of individual guidance and counselling services on the self-efficacy of orphaned children living in orphanages in Bungoma County, to establish the influence of group guidance and counselling services on the self-efficacy of orphaned children living in orphanages in Bungoma County, to determine the influence of career guidance services on the selfefficacy of orphaned children living in orphanages in Bungoma County, to establish the influence of guidance and counselling referral services on the self-efficacy of orphaned children living in orphanages in Bungoma County and to determine the influence of mentorship programs on the self-efficacy of orphaned children living in orphanages in Bungoma County. Four theories (Adlerian theory, Systems theory, Selfdetermination theory and the social learning theory) were used in this research. The researcher adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 2132 orphans in the 20 orphanages within Bungoma County. Two hundred and forty (240) of the orphans in all the 20 orphanages were purposively sampled and interviewed. One (1) caregiver and one (1) administrator (again per orphanage) were interviewed, totalling to 280 respondents. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data from the respondents who included the orphans, orphanages administrators and caregivers. The self-efficacy scale of 1-4 was converted to between 0-100. The data was prepared, coded and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Strict ethical considerations were observed during the study. The study established that there was a positive and significant relationship between self-efficacy of orphaned children and individual guidance and counselling services, group guidance and counselling services, career guidance services, guidiance and counselling referral services and mentorship programs. The study conclude that guidance and counselling services significantly influences the self-efficacy. The study‘s recommendation for a policy was that the government should come up with a policy to guide all the orphanages in Kenya, including the process of guidance and counselling. Recommendations for practice were that every orphanage should engage the services of a qualified and practising guidance and counselling specialist for the orphans. Individual guidanceand counselling services should be encouraged in orphanages, as they are effective. Group guidance and counselling services should be encouraged in orphanages as they create confidence among orphans. In addition, referral, mentorship and career guidance and counselling services help the orphans open up and focus more on their engagements for purposes of improving their lives in the post-orphanage days. The study recommends further studies on the influence of guidance and counselling services on the quality of life of the orphans, with special reference to their post-orphanage lives as well as on academic performance of the orphans living in orphanages.